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Stagflation, Disinflation, Reflation etc.

Stagflation is persistent high inflation combined with high unemployment and stagnant demand in a country’s economy.

Disinflation reduction in the rate of inflation.

Deflation reduction of the general level of prices in an economy. Inflation in minus.

Reflation is the act of stimulating the economy by increasing the money supply or by reducing taxes, seeking to bring the economy (specifically price level) back up to the long-term trend, following a dip in the business cycle.

Skewflation refers to inflation in some commodities, deflation in others.

Recession a period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters.

International Multilateral Banks and Institutions (Part 1)

1. Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank
  • The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) is an international financial institution that aims to support the building of infrastructure in the Asia-Pacificregion. The AIIB has a total of 57 members including 37 regional and 20 non-regional prospective founding members. The bank was proposed by China in 2013.
  • HQ at Beijing, China.
  • Presently AIIB will lend in US dollars rather than China’s currency, the renminbi, and its official language will be English.
  • India, Pakistan and Russia are members.
  • Major economies that did not become members include the G7/G8 members United States, Japan and Canada.
  • China has largest voting share (26.06%) followed by India (7.51) then Russia (5.92%).
  • Authorized capital is of 100 billion US dollars.
  • Its regional members (Asian) will be the holding around 75 percent of shares i.e. they will be majority shareholders.

2. New Development Bank (BRICS Bank)

  • The New Development Bank (NDB), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is a multilateral development bank established by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa).
  • According to the Agreement on the NDB, “the Bank shall support public or private projects through loans, guarantees, equity participation and other financial instruments.”
  • The initial authorized capital of the bank is $100 billion $.
  • The initial subscribed capital of the NDB is $50 bln divided into paid-in shares ($10 bln) and callable shares ($40 bln).
  • The bank is headquartered in Shanghai, China. The first regional office of the NDB will be opened in Johannesburg, South Africa.
  • K. V. Kamath was appointed as the President of the bank.
  • The primary objectives of the NDB should be to achieve three zeros by 2050: zero poverty, zero unemployment, and zero net carbon emissions.
3. The Asian Development Bank (ADB)
  • The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in Manila, Philippines, to promote social and economic development in Asia. The bank admits the members of the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (UNESCAP) and non-regional developed countries.
  • ADB now has 67 members, of which 48 are from within Asia and the Pacific and 19 outside.
  • The ADB was modeled closely on the World Bank, and has a similar weighted voting system where votes are distributed in proportion with members’ capital subscriptions.
  • ADB is an official United Nations Observer.
  • At the end of 2014, Japan holds the largest proportion of shares at 15.7%, United States holds 15.6%, China holds 6.5%, India holds 6.4%, and Australia holds 5.8%.
  • ADB funded Rural Roads Sector II Investment Program in India.

UNESCO recognized Biosphere Reserves and Natural Heritage Sites of India


UNESCO World Heritage Sites (natural)

1. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary, Assam(1985)

2. Kaziranga National Park, Assam(1985)

3. Keoladeo National Park, Rajasthan (1985)

4. Sundarbans National Park, West Bengal (1987)

5. Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks, Uttarakhand (1988)

6. Western Ghats, Maharashtra, Karnataka, Kerala (2012)

7. Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area, Himachal Pradesh (2014)

8. Khangchendzonga National Park, Sikkim (2016) 


UNESCO Recognised Biosphere Reserves

1. Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka

2. Gulf of Mannar Biosphere Reserve Tamil Nadu

3. Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve West Bengal

4. Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Uttarakhand

5. Nokrek Biosphere Reserve, Meghalaya

6. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve, Madhya Pradesh

7. Simlipal Biosphere Reserve, Odisha

8. Achanakmar-Amarkantak Biosphere Reserve, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh

9. Great Nicobar, Andaman and Nicobar Islands

10. Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve, Kerala and Tamil Nadu

JSY and JSSK !

2 schemes with confusing name and objectives.

  • Reducing maternal and infant mortality by promoting institutional delivery among pregnant women.
  • Eligible pregnant women are entitled for cash assistance irrespective of the age of mother and number of children for giving birth in a government or accredited private health facility.
  • Focuses on poor pregnant woman with a special dispensation for low performing states.
  • Performance based incentives to women health volunteers known as ASHA.
  • To mitigate the problem of out of pocket expenses (What women have to spend other than cash given by Govt.)
  • Zero expense deliveries: pregnant women are entitled for free drugs and consumables, free diagnostics, free blood whenever required, and free diet up to 3 days for normal delivery and 7 days for c-section.
  • Free transport from home to institution,
  • It supplements the cash assistance given to a pregnant woman under Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY).



Location of UTs

Location of UTs, Dadra & Nagar Haveli and Daman $ Diu. A lot of people don’t know the real location. They just know it is somewhere near Gujrat or maybe Maharashtra (उधर ही साइड है कहीं, वेस्ट में है)

World Bank Group

  • World Bank Group
  • When? 1944
  • Headquarter: Washington, D.C.
  • Publications– Global economic prospects, Ease of doing business index.

There are 2 goals for the world to achieve by 2030 –

* End extreme poverty by decreasing the percentage of people living on less than $1.90 a day to no more than 3%.

* Promote shared prosperity by fostering the income growth of the bottom 40% for every country.

World Bank Group is not just World bank but comprises of 5 institutions managed by their member countries

These 5 institutions are as follows –

1. International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD)– Commonly known as the world bank. It is the single largest provider of development loans

2. International Development Association (IDA) – assists the poorest countries

3. International Finance Corporation (IFC) – supports private enterprise in developing countries.

4. Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA) – offers investors insurance against non-commercial risk and help developing country governments attract foreign investment. Non commercial risks such as political instability, govt deciding to nationalise a private business etc.

5. International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID) – encourages the flow of foreign investment to developing countries through arbitration and conciliation facilities

Except for ICSID, India is member of other four groups.

India is one of the founder members of IBRD, IDA and IFC.

Convergent Boundaries and Divergent Boundaries


Convergent Boundaries

  • Explosive Volcanoes
  • High Silicic Magma: The magma comes from the subduction of lithospheric crust so it has more of silicate.
  • Stratovolcanoes
  • Consumption of the Ocean Floor
  • Shallow, Intermediate as well as Deep Focus Earthquakes
          Divergent Boundaries

  • Quite, Non explosive volcanoes
  • High Basaltic Magma: Oceanic crust is created at the mid-oceanic ridges; it forms from up welling magma that cools and solidifies to igneous rock. Most of this is Basaltic.
  • Shield Volcanoes
  • Creation of Ocean Floor
  • Shallow Focus earthquakes only


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